Africa, climate, colonialism, theory, underdevelopment. Over the years, african political and development scholars, writers and commentators have blamed the europeans for the underdevelopment of african. What is the root cause of africas current state of underdevelopment. Root causes of african underdevelopment, working papers in economics and development studies wopeds 200704, department of economics, padjadjaran. Part ii rethinking the root causes of africa s underdevelopment.
At the beginning, there was little query as to the causes of underdevelopment. Root causes of african underdevelopment root causes of african underdevelopment bhattacharyya, sambit 20091122 00. We investigate the relative contributions of these factors using atlantic distance, indian ocean distance, saharan distance, red sea distance, log settler mortality and malaria ecology as instruments. Is it the long history of slave trade, or the legacy of extractive colonial institutions, or the. It exists in rich and poor countries alike, it involves both. According to mills 2011, 2010, africa is poor today mainly because its leaders have chosen poverty over development of its people. Download file to see previous pages the paper will comment on the strength of these views and close with my position on the explanation of the causes of development and underdevelopment. Reasons for african underdevelopment lack of official ideology most african countries lack an official ideology. Causes of underdevelopment in developing countries answers. I begin by documenting some basic facts about how gender inequality correlates with. The causes of underdevelopment in developing countries include.
A critical analysis on the reasons of underdevelopment in africa. The root causes of corruption in african countries. Or do the countries that are poor today have certain characteristics and cultural beliefs that lead to the larger gender gaps. Root causes of african underdevelopment researchgate. Article availability in different formats pdf, epub, full text. Dependency and underdevelopment in africa is our main thrust which we try to relate the above to the nigerian context. A critical analysis in addition to the large expanse of arable land sudan has a large deposit of important minerals and natural resources such as iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, and tungsten, uranium, silver and gold. Is it the long history of slave trade, or the legacy of extractive. Root causes of african underdevelopment ideasrepec. Is it the long history of slave trade, or the legacy of extractive colonial institutions, or. The dependency syndrome in africa established its beginning after the gaining of independence, which has resulted to poverty. This paper uses nigeria, a typical african country, to illustrate the problems.
Dependency as we all know is a product of underdevelopment which is prevalent in africa in general and nigeria in particular. May 03, 2008 at the beginning, there was little query as to the causes of underdevelopment. This has necessitated the evocation of dependency theory in explaining africas cum nigerias underdevelopment situation, hence africas underdevelopment has been. What are the root causes of africas current state of under development. Is it the long history of slave trade, or the legacy of extractive colonial. This nation abruptly gained independence from portugal in 1975. Essay underdevelopment of africa 635 words bartleby. Well, i will call the shots as i see and the way i see, there are two major courses of underdevelopment in kenya. The result is a lowlevel equilibrium trap and persistent poverty.
Root causes of african underdevelopment article pdf available in journal of african economies 185 february 2008 with 78,345 reads how we measure reads. According to mills 2011, 2010, africa is poor today mainly because its leaders have chosen poverty over development of. The roots of gender inequality in developing countries. A developed country is one which provides a high standard of living to its people as a result of the per capita income and gross natural product. Is it the long history of slave trade, the legacy of extractive. Common to many conflicts is the unsatisfactory nature of interstate borders. Africans are the major cause of their underdevelopment. Root causes of african underdevelopment sambit bhattacharyya. Root causes of african underdevelopment journal of african. Underdevelopment in africa the journal for social, political, and.
With little experience in modern selfgovernance democracy failed to take root. Causes of underdevelopment and concepts for development. This paper explores the factors responsible for the underdevelopment of most african states with an attempt to provide some possible recommendations to overcoming the socioeconomic and political problems faced by the continent in a growing inter connected globalised world. Pdf what are the root causes of africas current state of underdevelopment. An earlier version of this paper explains this mechanism using an olg model. Elizabeth nduku john tenamwenye 14 focus corruption in africa a threat to justice and sustainable peace corruption has always existed in different forms, and is not determined by politics or geography.
Solutions for moving beyond an ethnic conflict kuntzelman 83 cause of southern sudans current underdevelopment is rooted in this colonial history, as colonial preference was given to the arab regions of the north, where power and decisionmaking became centralized in. A critical analysis on the reasons of underdevelopment in. Emmanuel oladipo ojo ekiti state university, nigeria. The colonization of africa by the europeans created a lot of problems that are still being addressed today on the african continent. Is it the long history of slave trade, the legacy of extractive colonial institutions, or the. Causes of economic dependency when considering the causes of economic underdevelopment and dependency on the part of african countries, it is important to remember that this distinction is the explicit result of exploitation at the hands of colonizers. Root causes of african underdevelopment, departmental working papers 200816, the australian national university, arndtcorden department of economics. When the new constitution was passed in 2010, everybody was happy that funds would be devolved and. Poverty, cultural causes, structural causes, corruption, unemployment 1. The triple causes of african underdevelopment academic journals. We investigate the relative contributions of these factors using an instrumental variable approach. All african nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. This perhaps helps explain the persistence of malaria in africa and also why malaria is a root cause of african underdevelopment. Pdf root causes of african underdevelopment barbara.
An ideology is a set of ideas that defines a countrys political, economic and sociocultural structures and development strategy. Is it the long history of slave trade, the legacy of extractive colonial institutions, or the fallout of malaria. Why africa remains underdeveloped despite its potential. Modernization theories propose that a countrys underdevelopment is a function of factors internal to the country. Causes of development and underdevelopment author institution causes of development and underdevelopment over time, there has been an interest in improving the living studentshare our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done. Imperialism and underdevelopment in the central african. This would even be true of the sahel countries, although the decline of transsaharan trading is seen as a result of the european occupation of the west african coast, and the forced cultivation of groundnuts or cotton during and after the colonial era is viewed critically. Root causes of african underdevelopment sambit bhattacharyya school of economics, australian national university anu 2005, hw arndt building canberra, act 2601. Many european countries which have already developed all their resources and have reached a high level of development can now generate their own capital. Bhattacharyya, sambit 2009 root causes of african underdevelopment. The socio political set up of african countries has a similarity with those of the east asian nations which have brought economic progress through exercising developmental state.
No 200704, working papers in economics and development studies wopeds from department of economics, padjadjaran university. The dependence syndrome involves looking for aid from donors. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. The independence of african states from colonial rule began from the middle part of the 20th century signaled strong prospects and hope for a better and prosperous continent. Root causes of african underdevelopment journal of. People in africa are always looking outside for other people to help them. Third, i examine the political economy and cultural ecology of war, singling out the political and structural dynamics of african wars, their economic. If africa were as developed as other lands such as europe, the poverty level will be much lower than it is today. Lack of an ideology therefore has led to a lot of confusion in developing states. Some from the colonization perspective and others from the political set up of the continent. Departmental working papers from the australian national university, arndtcorden department of economics.
Compared with the third world, development indicators of africa. Due to the underdevelopment of africa, the brightest minds in africa are constantly on the move seeking pastures greener in other lands. Many scholars have attributed the economic and developmental state of the african continent to a number of factors including colonialism. Root causes of african underdevelopment, journal of. Colonizers used the idea of being at completely separate evolutionary points in development. International journal of sociology and anthropology, vol. But their costs cannot be in doubt, nor the need, indeed the urgency, to. Instead, influential figures assumed or seized power and implemented measures to retain power rather than establish good governance. First, africa was divided by european superpowers on paper without taking into account the people that were living there. Second, i look at the current us war on terror, its causes, its connections with africas other wars, and its unfolding consequences for the continent. What is the root cause of africas current state of under development. The underdevelopment of africa and african studies is a widespread, complex topic that coincided all over the world. In kenya, what are the main causes of underdevelopment.
A single factor theory of africas underdevelopment science. Is the higher level of gender inequality explained by underdevelopment itself. See his root of african underdevelopment, journal of african economies, vol. Imperialism and economic underdevelopment in sudan. May 23, 2012 by william gumede most wellintentioned corruptionbusting remedies in africa fail because the root causes are often poorly understood. Morbidity reduces productivity shrinking households income and the ability to save. Theoretical considerations at this time of cold war explained the situation of underdevelopment and the path for development from the viewpoint of. Feb, 20 reasons for african underdevelopment lack of official ideology most african countries lack an official ideology. The high incidence of underdevelopment of africa is tied to underdevelopment. Imperialism and neocolonialism from former or superior nations whom directly or indirectly might be in the helms of affairs of these. Different scholars have tried to analyze the root causes of under development in africa in different perspective. Is it the long history of slave trade, the legacy of extractive colonial insti tutions, or the. Economic underdevelopment in africa violence in twentieth. This paper contends that while the history of africas underdevelopment is often traced to the atlantic and arab slave trade and to colonial rule, african leaders have been heavily responsible the continents underdevelopment and.
Pdf root causes of african underdevelopment researchgate. Is it the long history of slave trade, or the legacy of extractive colonial institutions, or the fallout of malaria. Its rate of killing cannot be compared to any disease from the genesis of mankind. Root causes of african underdevelopment ceds unpad. Major causes of poverty in africa and possible solutions. However, that hope never stand the true test of time. What are the root causes of africas current state of underdevelopment. During the early period of development efforts there was little discussion on the historical causes and the real nature of underdevelopment. The root causes of corruption in african countries may 23, 2012 12. Postindependence african countries inherited deeply corrupt institutions, laws and values from colonial and apartheid governments. The causes of conflicts in africa are many and they frequently recur, including major causes of potential tensions and conflicts, which could perhaps be summarised and classified below. Root causes of african underdevelopment, journal of african economies, centre for the study of african economies csae, vol. Underdevelopment may occur in various forms and have various causes, but the symptoms of underdevelopment are easily distinguishable. Rethinking the root causes of africas underdevelopment.
This has uplifted so many consequences, but of all, the economic, political, and social factors are highly affected regions. This has necessitated the evocation of dependency theory in explaining africas cum nigerias underdevelopment situation. There is the general belief that education is an instrument for social, economic and political development. We investigate the relative contributions of these factors using atlantic distance. Africa is in dire need of economic, sociopolitical and infrastructural developments that will take it out of abject poverty and other forms of backwardness that have made it a subject of scorn among its peers in spite of its vast natural and human resources. Advancing reasons for africa s underdevelopment, sambit bhattacharyya argued that malaria matters the most and all other factors are statistically insignificant. This paper investigates the relative contribution of these historical factors using an instrumental variable approach. It is on this premise that this study sets to appraise the various means through which imperialism has been contributing to the underdevelopment of postcolonial african nations, focusing on central african republic. Causes, impact and implications for the great lakes region executive summary the democratic republic of congo is recovering from conflicts, posting substantial improve ment in overall macroeconomic performance since the cessation of the war, on the back of robust copper and cobalt exports.
Africans are immensely underdeveloped and have suffered for more than five centuries because of. The most easily recognizable symptoms of underdevelopment are. Within this second group of scholars who ascribe to internal causes of africas underdevelopment, there is a growing body of knowledge associating underdevelopment with africas bad leadership. Issn 09638024 full text not available from this repository. Root causes of african underdevelopment, journal of african.
Corruption in africa a threat to justice and sustainable peace editors. No 200704, working papers in economics and development studies wopeds from department of economics, padjadjaran university abstract. A single factor theory of africas underdevelopment. This has made people to lose the skill of being enterprising. High mortality rate induces households to save less and consume more. African countries, without an exception, are generally categorized among third world countries which are characterized by underdevelopment of their human and natural resources and the poor quality of life of the majority of their citizenry. Undp human development index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Consequently, the country has played host to numerous imperialist powers.1164 46 1063 529 1573 1569 924 543 306 1081 159 1490 771 321 198 1038 1263 1570 639 13 1541 89 1521 1049 462 855 670 53 1624 729 680 1618 415 1211 353 1117 133 518 601 1155 649 522 1228